The knee joint is particularly susceptible to traumatic injury because it is located at the ends of two long lever arms, the tibia and the femur. In addition, because the joint connects one long bone “sitting” on another long bone, it depends on the ligaments and muscles that surround it for its strength and stability, not on its bony configuration. Because the knee joint depends on its ligaments to such a great extent, it is imperative that the ligaments be tested during the examination of the knee.

Because of its anatomical arrangement, the knee is a complicated area to assess, and the examiner must take time to ensure that all relevant structures are tested. It must also be remembered that the lumbar spine, hip, and ankle may refer pain to the knee, and these joints must be assessed if it appears that joints other than the knee may be involved.

Some of the common diagnoses knee conditions are:

Osteoarthritis, ACL injury, Meniscus injury, Patellofemoral joint syndrome, Jumper’s knee.

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